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KLIC Sessions - POMS 2007 PDF Print E-mail

Friday May 4th 1:30-3pm
KLIC 1: Learning from Errors and Operational Failures in Healthcare and Banking

007-0512 Top Management’s Focus of Attention and Organizational Learning from Errors
POM2007-028 A multi-method case study of four hospitals explored whether and how the focus of attention of top management influenced organizational learning from medication errors. We conducted 58 interviews with top management team members, participated as observers in 70 hours of internal meetings about medication errors, and directly observed medication administration processes in12 different patient floors. Overall, the structures and processes that enable organizational learning (specific goals and metrics, organization-wide awareness about them, formal routines for data analysis and problem solving, and resources to implement corrective actions) were consistently observed only with respect to issues that received frequent (daily) top management attention e.g., cost reduction. Medication error reduction received comparable attention only in two of the hospitals, also the ones where we observed significantly more instances of learning from medication errors. The implications, for organizational learning, of making error reduction both a strategic as well as an operational priority are discussed.
Donna Keyser, Rangaraj Ramanujam, Carl Sirio, Debra Thompson

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007-0127 Learning orientation as a predictor of medical treatment errors
POM2007-028 Every organization is confronted with employee errors. In order to eliminate errors, organizations emphasize a learning-orientation, which refers to the importance given within the organization to increasing each employee’s level of knowledge and competence, improving employee performance, and understanding of work processes. The study explored the concepts of learning-orientation, autonomy, and voice, and the interactions among them, as predictors of errors, using the example of resident physicians’ medical errors. Errors made by 126 residents in a three-month period were tallied. Although in the literature employee autonomy is expected to have a positive effect on performance, results demonstrated that such relationships exist only when learning-orientation was high. When learning-orientation was low, there were curvilinear relationships between the level of employee autonomy and the number of errors in which highest and lowest levels of autonomy were associated with many errors.Tal Katz-Navon, Eitan Naveh, Zvi Stern

007-0711 Surgeon, Surgical Team and Surgery-Recovery System Knowledge Generation and Learning in a Hospital
POM2007-028 Learning curves of surgeons, surgical teams and the surgery-recovery system of a hospital are analyzed using data collected over a five year period. We explore potential interactions between surgeons, surgical teams, and the surgery-recovery system learning processes. How is individual knowledge created through team interactions and through interaction within the surgery-recovery system? How do individuals influence the development of team and surgery-recovery system knowledge? And how do current rates of learning and levels of performance of surgeons, surgical teams and the surgery-recovery system influence future rates of learning and levels of performance for surgeons, surgical teams and the surgery-recovery system within a hospital?
Nile Hatch, David Moore

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007-0338 Operational Failures and Organizational Learning: The Moderating Role of Process Complexity and Management Control Syste
POM2007-028 Organizations struggle to reduce the impact of operational failures on firm performance. Research suggests that organizations reduce the probability and severity of operational failures by learning from the failures that occur frequently. However, very little is known about how firms learn from infrequent, yet high impact, operational failures. In this research, we investigate the conditions that strengthen or weaken the relationship between infrequent operational failures and organizational learning. In particular, we examine the effect of process complexity and management control systems on learning from infrequent operational failures. Drawing on unit-level panel data from a multinational bank, we find that the degree of process complexity and the amount of investment in control and monitoring systems moderate the relationship between infrequent operational failures and organizational learning. Our findings have important implications for learning from infrequent operational failures.
Manpreet Hora


Sunday 1:30 – 3 pm
KLIC 2: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Transfer within Frontline Workgroups

007-0606 Knowledge Management for Product and Process Design Teams
POM2007-028 A model is presented to analyze dynamic knowledge management strategies for product and process design teams engaged in a new product development. The profit-maximizing firm earns net revenue at the end of the planning horizon when the product is released to the marketplace. The net revenue is a function of time and the levels of knowledge each team embeds into the new product during the development period. The levels of knowledge of the product and process design teams increase from learning-by-doing, knowledge transfer, and training. We optimally determine the rate and direction for knowledge transfer between the product and process design teams and the rate of training for each team. The key results include the characterization of conditions leading to various knowledge creation strategies and the delay of product launch times. Also, we analyze the impact of either conflict or synergy when knowledge transfer occurs in both directions simultaneously.
Cheryl Gaimon, Gulru Ozkan

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007-0602 Managing Knowledge in the Workforce and the Technical System
POM2007-028 We consider a manager responsible for improving the performance of the knowledge-based resources deployed to create products or services. First, we introduce a holistic treatment of how workforce knowledge changes over time. We capture the effect of workforce knowledge depreciation, forgetting, and learning-by-doing. Second, we examine a manager's investment in technological capability. The depreciation of the existing technology or the availability of advanced technology offered by vendors drive the technology upgrade decision. Third, we analyze technology implementation which links the management of workforce knowledge with the upgrade decision. For example, we model the obsolescence in workforce knowledge that occurs at an upgrade and the extent that obsolescence can be reduced if the manager invests in learning-before-doing prior to the upgrade. Finally, the manager's strategy to improve the performance seeks to maximize the profit (function of workforce knowledge and technological capability) less the costs incurred for training and technology upgrades.
Cheryl Gaimon

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007-0161 The Quality and the Quantity of Communication: Psychological Safety and Knowledge Sharing in Workgroups
POM2007-028 We examine how psychological safety influences knowledge sharing in a dyadic relationship. Reconciling recent conflicting findings in the literature, we show that while psychological safety is important for knowledge sharing, this relationship is moderated by the level of confidence of the knowledge provider. Linking this result to social network theory, we find that the confidence of the knowledge provider is related to the codifiability or explicitness of the knowledge involved, and psychological safety increases with the frequency of interaction between the knowledge provider and recipient. We further investigate direct and indirect antecedents of psychological safety. We find that structural and infrastructural operational decisions can influence psychological safety by altering interaction patterns between employees. The results of this latter part of our investigation provide insights for process managers by pointing to actions that they can take to influence psychological safety and increase the effectiveness of employee engagement in process improvement.
Gopesh Anand, Sridhar Balasubramanian, Aleda Roth, Enno Siemsen

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